Guandu Nature Reserve (Revoked)



Date of Proclamation June 27, 1986
Date of Revocation December 20, 2021
Size of Area (ha) 55 ha.
Primary Object for Protection Aquatic birds
Scope of Administration Swampland outside of Guang-du embankment – Taipei City
Authority in-charge-of Taipei City Animal Protection Office


The area is located to the north-west of Taipei and south-west of Guang-du plain , at the convergence of Keelung River and Danshui River , and is a typical river-mouth wetland. Local scenery has withstood tremendous changes in the last thirty years. According to records, the area is a large piece of waters in early Qing dynasty [1700 A.D.]. In Emperor Guang-shu’s time [1875], the area became farmland after settlement and remained so until 1965. Since there are a lot of in this area, the government constructed embankment in 1968 for flood-prevention, while farmlands outside the embankment were gradually abandoned. In addition, With rezoning of river-way near Danshui River to the sea , sinking of Taipei basin, sand pumping at Danshui River, and backwash of sea-water, the area ends up at a grand piece of swampland.

Earlier vegetations found growing in mud beaches are cyperus malaccenis lam and reed, interwoven with massive area of mud beach forming perfect rest and breeding grounds for migratory birds. At season migration for birds, great numbers will stop by or take residence for the winter arrive for rest, being one of the most essential bird watching areas in northern Taiwan. The Council of Agriculture has officiated the area as “Guandu Nature Reserve” in June 1986.


Guandu Nature Reserve sits to the north-west of Taipei City and south-west of Guang-du plain, near the convergence of Keelung and Danshui River, and is about 10 km from the river mouth of Danshui River. The embankment put up on both sides of Keelung River along northern shore split the wetland into split Guang-du into the southern and northern parts. The swampland mangrove to the south of embankment is the natural reserve, while the northern part is designed as “Guan-du Natural Park”by Taipei City Government, and it is scheduled to be opened in 1999.

An Introduction

  • Temperature: annual average 22℃; the lowest monthly average 15℃ and the highest 28.7℃.
  • Rainfall: annual average 2,071 mm.
  • Altitude above sea level: 0-10 m
  • Geology : the soil at Guang-du plain is of Modern alleviated stratum, with Pleistocene epoch breccia to the North and Miocene Epoch rocks at Kwei-Zhi-Kang of Beitou. To the northwest of the plain, Chinshan fault passes by .
  • Geographic formation: There is not much height variation. The land contour lowers from north to southwest, therefore, water flows in the same direction. It is mostly swampland at the southern part of the embankment with tides. Most of the plants are emerged under water in high tides, and one can see only the top of mangrove. In low tides, mud beach appears.

Biological Resources

As of its unique swamp ecological environment, life of the area has found their special manner of adaptation for survival. At the red tree forest, one can easily observe mangrove, reed, and cyperus malaccenis lam. Besides, mudskipper and crabs are prevalent on mud beaches in this area. Main sources of food for birds are fish and invertebrates hidden in swampland mud.

Since there are as many as over 250 species of birds can be found in the area, it is one of the spots in Taiwan with the greatest diversity of birds, and the majority of them are predatory migration birds like the snipe families. In the summer, it is the breeding grounds for egrets & water-tails, and in winter, migratory birds will take residence. During spring and autumn, it will act as habitat for transiting birds.

Inhabitant Environment

Since the area sit near the river mouth of Danshui River , with prominent tidal changes, there is tremendous change of water level and saline content change, and it is turned into a unique local ecosystem, very suitable for mangrove. Herbal vegetations in swampland die in winter, and are decomposed on the muddy. As a result, these organic materials and other nutrients from the upper and middle stream intercepted become food source for local animals other vegetations, and so as visiting birds to feed on.

With most prosperous growth of cyperus malaccenis lam , reed mangrove making the area rather discrete, in addition to its soft mud land which is not suitable human and large-scale animal for activity, it is comparatively with less human disturbance, being one of the major reasons why so many birds are attracted to come and rest cyperus malaccenis lam.

The plantation of mangrove began around 1978, starting with only a few of them. Later on, however favorable ecological conditions have instigated its rapid growth. To the time when the reserve was officially established, there are as many as over 10 hectares of mangrove. Since the authority in-charge-of takes no any preventive measures, growth of mangrove continues, taking the place of mud beaches, reed and cyperus malaccenis lam. Presently, about 40 hectares of mangrove can be found at the site.

Current Situation and Suggestion

Because there is sand and underground water pumping the past, basin sinks seriously, and the backwash of sea-water has changed the saline content of soil producing amazingly fast large size of land for mangrove. As a result, it has not only replaced former mud beaches, but also affected birds which feed on naked muddy beach. The reduction of reed and cyperus malaccenis lam largely decreases the diversity of habitat modes, rendering fewer spots available for birds to rest. Other serious man-made pollution has such spoiled the water with high content of oxygen and metal, not to mention waste soil dumping, and land development, which has greatly devastated local ecology.

Transportation Conditions

Private vehicle : one can travel from Taipei City, and head for the direction of Danshui, then reach Guang-du Temple via Da-du Road or No. 2 Provincial highway to Chi Hsin Road. Then, one would enter the area with a few more steps.


  • Mr. Lin Yiao-Song, Mr. Lu Guan-Yang. 1985. Initial Planning Project – Aquatic Birds Reserve [Guang-du, Zhong-shing Bridge, to Hwa-jiang Bridge]. Taipei City Government. Taipei.
  • Mr. Lin Zhe-Tong. 1987. Ecosystem Research – Vegetations In Guang-du Swampland. Council of Agriculture – Executive Yuan. Taipei.
  • Mr. Lin Yiao-Song [leader of team]. 1988. Planning Regulations – Guang-du Natural Park. Department of Economic Development – Taipei City Government & Taipei Wild Birds Society. Taipei.
  • Mr. Lin Ming-Zhi. 1994. Relationship Between Scenic Alterations & Regional Birds Dynamics – Guang-du Area. Master Thesis – Biological Research Division – Fu-Jen University. Taipei.
  • Miss Lin Pei-Pei. 1995. Consequences Concerning Regional Birds Clustering In Relationship To Scenic Alterations At The Guang-du Natural Park Site. Master Thesis – Zoological Research Division – National Taiwan University [NTU]. Taipei.

Endangered Animals within the area

※ Endangered Species of birds

白鸛 (Ciconia ciconia)
琵鷺 (Platalea leucorodia)
黑面琵鷺 (Platalea minor)
隼 (Falco peregrinus)
諾氏鷸 (Tringa guttifer)

※ Rare species of birds

唐白鷺 (Egretta eulophotes)
黑頭白 (Threskiornis aethiopicus)
巴鴨 (Anas formosa)
松雀鷹 (Accipiter virgatus)
赤腹鷹 (Accipiter soloensis)
鳳頭蒼鷹 (Accipiter trivirgatus)
灰面鷲 (Butastur indicus)
老鷹 (Milvus migrans)
大冠鷲 (Spilornis cheela)
魚鷹 (Pandion haliaetus)
環頸雉 (Phasianus colchicus)
水雉 (Hydrophasianus chirurgis)
彩鷸 (Rostratula benghalensis)
燕 (Glareola maldivarus)
玄燕鷗 (Anous stolidus)
小燕鷗 (Sterna albifrons)
白眉燕鷗 (Sterna anaetheta)
蒼燕鷗 (Sterna sumatrana)
畫眉 (Garrulax canorus)

※※ Others Conservation-Deserving Species of Birds

喜鵲 (Pica pica)
紅尾伯勞 (Lanius cristatus)
Visit counts:3502 Last updated on:2021-12-21